The Roman Agora of Athens: The Monuments and the History

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The Roman Agora of Athens,
The Roman Agora of Athens

The Roman Agora of Athens (or the Roman Forum) was an important marketplace and meeting point during the Roman Era in ancient Athens. It was constructed with donated funds by Julius Caesar and Augustus between 19 and 11 BCE.

Evgenia outdie the The Roman Agora of Athens,
Me at the entrance of Roman Agora

It is located on the north side of the hill of Acropolis, in charming Plaka, Athens’ old area, quite close to the Ancient Agora of Athens. The location was strategically chosen as it was both close to the Acropolis, the most important religious and symbolic site of the city, and the Ancient Agora, the center of the commercial and political life of the time.

The The Roman Agora of Athens open yard
Roman Agora

The Roman Agora of Athens consists of a large, open-air courtyard surrounded by colonnades on all four sides covered in shops of all kinds and offices. In other words, the Roman Agora of Athens was the shopping Mall of Roman Athens!

Central Apartments in Athens,Roman Agora in Athens
Roman Agora of Athens

This guide to Roman Agora of Athens includes information about:

  • What an Agora is
  • Where exactly the Roman Agora of Athens is located
  • How to get to the Roman Agora
  • What are the entrance fees and the operation hours
  • Historical facts about the Roman Agora of Athens and some info about Great Alexander
  • Where to stay close to the best monuments in Athens!

*Some of the links below are affiliate links. If you click and buy something through them, I may earn a small commission — which costs you absolutely nothing! I am very grateful when you use my links to make a purchase*

What is an Agora?

Ancient Agora of Athens, Attalos
Ancient Agora of Athens

Before we go on, let’s make it clear what an Agora is, in case you are wondering about it:

Agora in ancient Greek city-states was a specific area, usually in the center of the city or near a port with a variety of buildings, for administration, religion, shopping, or recreational reasons.

The Ancient Agora of Kos
Ancient Agora of Kos

Agora in other words was the religious, political, judicial, social, philosophical, and commercial center. Literally, everything was happening in Agoras, from significant meeting points to voting, discussing new ideas, judging and shopping. Agoras were the beating heart of the city.

Roman Agora of Thessaloniki
Roman Agora of Thessaloniki

Agoras in Greece

So far, there have been only 5 Agoras excavated in Greece:

  • The Roman and Ancient Agoras of Athens
  • The Roman Agora of Thessaloniki, located on the upper side of Aristotelous Square
  • The Ancient Agora of Kos island
  • The Ancient Agora of Megalopolis in the Peloponnese

If you would like to have a guided tour with a licensed professional guide of the Athenian Agoras please send your inquiry here for a quote or join my informative and entertaining group on Facebook. Thanks!

Short History of the Two Agoras in Athens

A painting of Great Alexander's death by Carl Theodor von Piloty, Neue Pinakothek Munchen
Great Alexander’s death by Carl Theodor von Piloty, Neue Pinakothek Munchen

The ancient Greek city-states were (unhappily) part of the Macedonian Empire when Alexander the Great died in 323 BCE. From that moment and for the next 48 years his generals fought ferociously over succession, known as the Wars of the Diadochi (succession wars between 323-275 BCE).

Roman general Lucius Mummius Achaicus in The Sack of Corinth, by Thomas Allom
Roman general Lucius Mummius Achaicus in The Sack of Corinth, by Thomas Allom 

In 214 BCE Romans, who wanted to expand their territory, declared war on Macedonia which was completely defeated in 168 BCE. 22 years later, in 146 BCE, in the battle of Corinth (which was totally destroyed by the Romans), Greece becomes a Roman province.

Related Reading: Corinth, The History and Legacy of the Ancient Greek City-State

A man taking a phot of Temple of Hephestus in Ancient Agora of Athens
The Temple of Hephestus in Ancient Agora

Since the time of Peisistratus (d. c. 528 BCE), a ruler of Athens, the cultural, political, philosophical, and commercial meeting point was the Ancient Agora of Athens. Even though it was destroyed and rebuilt quite a few times throughout the centuries, it remained one of the most important centers of political and cultural Athens.

Greece's History Timeline
Greece’s History Timeline

However, since the 1st century BCE, the Ancient Agora was transformed into a residential and monumental area as it was occupied by various new Roman buildings like the Odeon of Agrippa. But in this way, the merchants lost valuable space.

The runis of Delos Island near Mykonos
Delos Island near Mykonos

It should be noted that after 80 BCE more and more merchants flocked to Athens, because the great market of Delos, which was destroyed in the Second Mithridatic War, was closed.

The foundation of a new commercial Agora was clearly imperative. The Athenians, through their ambassador Herod of Marathon, succeeded in obtaining financial support from Julius Caesar and Augustus and they started building the Roman Agora of Athens.

Athens and the Gate of Athena in 1870
Athens and the Gate of Athena in 1870

After the Byzantine empire was established in Greece, the Roman Agora of Athens was occupied by private houses and churches, and during the Ottoman Empire, a mosque was added. Excavations started by the Greek Archaeological Society in 1837 and continued until 1991.

Suggested Read: Ancient Greek Mythology Book for Adults by Stephen Fry.

The Roman Agora of Athens Monuments

The Roman Agora’s main entrance today is through the Gate of Athena Archigetis. However, in Roman times, there were two gates, the western Athena Gate and the eastern Propylon (or entranceway) which was leading to the public latrines and the Tower of Winds.

But let’s walk around the site from its main entrance:

Gate of Athena Archigetis (Athena Leader)

Roman Agora Entrance in Athens Greece
Gate of Athena Archigetis

The Gate of Athena Archigetis is built entirely of Pentelic marble and has 4 massive Doric columns.

On the top of the Gate, there is an inscription on its architrave (the main beam resting across the tops of columns), which states that it was built from the donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus and was dedicated by the Municipality of Athens to Athena the Archigetis during the reign of Nikios.

Inscription on Athena Archigetis Gate in Roman Agora
Inscription on Athena Archigetis Gate

The text says:

“THE CITY FROM THE DONATIONS GIVEN BY THE SON OF JULIUS CAESAR THE GOD / AND THE EMPEROR CAESAR THE GOD / THE SON OF THE REVERED SON OF THE EMPEROR CAESAR / THE CHIEF GENERAL OF ATHENS, WHO COMMANDED THE SOLDIERS OF EUCLES MARATHON / AND SUCCEEDED TO THE CUSTODY OF HIS FATHER, HIS HERO AND AMBASSADOR / ON THE THRONE OF NICIAS THE SARAPION OF ATHOS”.

During the reign of Emperor Hadrian (2nd century AD), another inscription was added to the gate which defined the tax obligations of the oil merchants (business is business no matter the century!).

The Tower of the Winds

Tower of the Winds inside Roam Agora of Athens
Tower of the Winds

The Tower of the Winds or Aerides (winds in Greek) is the most famous building of the Roman Agora of Athens. It was built during the late Hellenistic period, quite possibly at the end of the 2nd century BCE by the famous astronomer Andronicos, from Kyrrhos in Macedonia.

The back side of the Tower of Winds of Athens Roman Agora
The back side of the Tower of Winds

The beautiful and intact octagonal Pentelic-marble tower is the most photographed monument of the Roman agora and it was designed to be an elaborate water clock (on the inside), sundial (on the outside), and wind vane (on the top).

Interior of the Tower of Winds in Roman Agora of Athens
Interior of the Tower of Winds

The hydraulic mechanism is quite complex and compares with the one of the Antikythera Mechanism. On the top of the building (13.8 meters high), there are 8 engraved personifications of wind, which are in excellent condition.

Tower of Winds in Roman Agora of Athens as a tekkes
Tower of Winds as a Tekke – Edward Dodwell

In the early Christian period, the Tower of the Winds was used as a bell tower of a Byzantine church and in the 18th century, it was used as the tekke (Tekke is the Turkish word for the local meeting and living center of a Sufi fraternity and played a role in the Islamization of local peoples and cultures) of the Mevlevi Order, the famed “whirling dervishes”.

Elgin had planned to remove the whole building to England but because the Dervishes considered the Tower a holy place, they didn’t let him take it (Wish they had acted the same way with all the rest of the Greek monuments that Elgin took away).

1850 Tower of Winds by James Robertson and old Greeks
1850 Tower of Winds by James Robertson (the man in slacks is standing under the Agoranomion and the three other men are Greeks in foustanella, the traditional attire for men back then)

During this period the tower was buried at half its height, and traces of this can still be seen inside, while there are still Turkish inscriptions on the walls.

This monument is considered the oldest meteorological station in the world.

The Eastern Propylon

Eastern Propylon of Roman Agora of Athens
Eastern Propylon

The Eastern Propylon was built c. 19-11 BCE of Hymettian marble and its four Ionic columns still stand today. It was the eastern entrance to the Roman Agora of Athens.

The Agoranomion

Agoranomion in Roman Agora of Athens
Agoranomion

The Agoranomion, which stands next to the Tower of Winds, was built in the 1st century CE.

It is a building the identification of which is not yet ascertained. According to the inscription on the facade of the building, it was dedicated to Athena Archigetis and the Divi Augusti.

in Roman Agora of Athens, Agoranomion
The back side of Agoranomion

A wide staircase, part of the facade with three doors, as well as parts of the north and south walls are preserved. Unfortunately, a large part of the eastern side of the building lies under the street of Marcus Aurelius and so we cannot complete the floor plan.

The Vespasianae (Latrines)

The Vespasianae (Latrines) is standing on the other side of the Tower of winds and it was a public latrine. You can still see today the latrines and foundation but the building was destroyed at some point in the 3rd or 4th centuries CE.

Its use was defined in 1940 by Anastasios Orlandos (a famous Greek architect, historian, and leading researcher in ancient and Byzantine architecture). Beneath the benches was a deep sloping area to channel the impurities into the main city drain, with the continuous flow of water coming from the springs of the northern slope of the Acropolis.


Would you like to have history brought to life? Book a professionally guided tour to Athens Agora & Roman Agora.

If you love biking, this 2,5 hour Athens Sightseeing Tour by City Bike is a fantastic tour that goes around the city, Roman Agora of Athens included!


The Fethiye Mosque (Camii), مسجد فتحية

The Fethiye Mosque in Roman Agora of Athens
The Fethiye Mosque

The Fethiye or the “Mosque of the Conquest”, or as it was commonly known, the “Wheatmarket Mosque” is a Sunni Mosque built between 1668 and 1670 CE.

In the exact same location, there was a three-tier, Basilica, a Byzantine church of the 8th or 9th century which was converted into a mosque in 1456/58, to honor the visit of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror to Athens. This construction was torn down and the mosque was rebuilt in 1668.

The Fethiye Mosque exterior view in Roman Agora of Athens
Fethiye Mosque

It is a large construction, with arches, domes, and pillars – built with the type of quatrefoil – creating a beautiful imposing building. It is a very interesting architectural type that resembles mosques found in Istanbul. During the Greek War of Independence and around 1824, its minaret was torn down. In the next decades, the mosque was used as a school, barracks, a military prison, and finally as a military bakery.

The Fethiye Mosque inside the Roman Agora
Interior of the mosque today

From the early 20th century it was used as a storage house for the findings from the Roman Agora of Athens. In 2010, after diagnosing the structural problems that the building was suffering at the time, the Greek Ministry of Culture restored, renovated it, and opened it to the public. There are also cultural events and exhibitions organized in the mosque.

The Fethiye mosque is the oldest mosque in Athens, as the Tzisdarakis mosque, the second mosque still standing in Athens on Monastiraki Sq, was built in 1759.

If you are interested in Athens’ Ottoman past, read here a detailed post on Ottoman monuments in Athens.

Where exactly is Roman Agora Located?

People walking in a Plaka street, old Athens
Plaka street

The Roman Agora is located in the oldest part of modern Athens, the Plaka area. Plaka is built on the north and east foothills of Acropolis Hill, with characteristic neoclassic buildings and patches of ancient ruins everywhere you go.

best hotels in Plaka Athens- Anafiotika whitewashed houses
Plaka Anafiotika

If you walk uphill and towards the Acropolis, you will find the iconic Anafiotika, which looks like a Cycladic island with tiny labyrinth-like alleys. Anafiotikia took its name from the Anafi island workers who came to Athens in the 19th century to work as builders. I suggest you walk all around it and discover the most historic area of Athens.

Where Best to Stay in Plaka

House at the Foothills of Acropolis
House at the Foothills of Acropolis



House at the Foothills of Acropolis (Booking rate 9.8, can host up to 6 guests, from €202). An amazing large, light, and airy house with a terrace right across Acropolis, in Plaka.

Roman Agora Opening Hours

Roman Agora of Athens Entrance sign
Information sign at the entrance of Roman Agora

Roman Agora Tickets: If you are visiting Athens for the first time, then you should buy the ‘package’ ticket that gives you access to 7 major sites for the current price of €30 which is valid for 5 days. The sites that you can visit are:

  • Acropolis Hill and Slopes
  • Ancient Agora of Athens and its Museum
  • Roman Agora
  • Archaeological Museum of Kerameikos
  • Hadrian’s Library
  • Lyceum(Lykeion) Archaeological Site
  • Olympieio (Temple of Zeus),

The entrance fee to the Roman Agora is €8 euro per person for the time between April and October and €4 between November and March. Half Price Entrance (not valid for the combo ticket): All archaeological sites in Greece have a half-price ticket from November 1 to March 31. All sites take both credit cards and cash and offer an official ticket.

Free Entrance: From November to March, admission is totally free on the first Sunday of the month and on the dates March 6th, April 18th, May 18th, the last weekend of September, and October 28th.

Roman Agora of Athens Opening Hours 8:00-20:00. For details on the free entrance days, if you would like to purchase the ticket, and info about the days the site is closed, please visit the Official website of the Ministry of Culture.

How to Get to Roman Agora

Monastriaki square in Athens
Monastiraki Station on the left

The Roman Agora is 5 minutes walk far from the Monastiraki metro station towards Plaka and Acropolis Hill. As you get off the station on your left hand you will see the archaeological site of Adrian’s Library. If you continue walking for 2 blocks straight ahead you will find the Roman Agora on your left-hand side. If you find directions confusing, check the Map of the Roman Agora of Athens below:

Map Of Roman Agora

Google Map Of Roman Agora
Map of Roman Agora

Get your interactive map of Roman Agora here to get to any of the places mentioned in this post.

Cool Things to Buy from Amazon

Sources

  • https://www.worldhistory.org
  • http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/eh351.jsp?obj_id=2402
  • https://explore-athens.weebly.com/about.html
  • http://archaeologia.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/chapter_more_5.aspx

Did you visit the Roman Agora of Athens?

Let me know what you think about visiting Roman Agora in the comments, I’d love to hear whether I managed to get it onto your bucket list! Till next time, Evgenia❤️

Plan Your Next Trip to Greece With These Resources

Greece Packing List – What to pack for a 10-day trip to Greece
Mamma Mia Greece Locations – All the mainland and island shooting areas in Greece
Salamina Island – So close to Athens, so unknown to the mass tourism
Kefalonia Island – Belonging to the Ionian group like Corfu island
First Time to Greece? All the info you need to know!

Athens Quick Reference

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